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Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome.

TitlePosterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2021
AuthorsGewirtz AN, Gao V, Parauda SC, Robbins MS
JournalCurr Pain Headache Rep
Volume25
Issue3
Pagination19
Date Published2021 Feb 25
ISSN1534-3081
Abstract

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review provides an updated discussion on the clinical presentation, diagnosis and radiographic features, mechanisms, associations and epidemiology, treatment, and prognosis of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES). Headache is common in PRES, though headache associated with PRES was not identified as a separate entity in the 2018 International Classification of Headache Disorders. Here, we review the relevant literature and suggest criteria for consideration of its inclusion.

RECENT FINDINGS: COVID-19 has been identified as a potential risk factor for PRES, with a prevalence of 1-4% in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection undergoing neuroimaging, thus making a discussion of its identification and treatment particularly timely given the ongoing global pandemic at the time of this writing. PRES is a neuro-clinical syndrome with specific imaging findings. The clinical manifestations of PRES include headache, seizures, encephalopathy, visual disturbances, and focal neurologic deficits. Associations with PRES include renal failure, preeclampsia and eclampsia, autoimmune conditions, and immunosuppression. PRES is theorized to be a syndrome of disordered autoregulation and endothelial dysfunction resulting in preferential hyperperfusion of the posterior circulation. Treatment typically focuses on treating the underlying cause and removal of the offending agents.

DOI10.1007/s11916-020-00932-1
Alternate JournalCurr Pain Headache Rep
PubMed ID33630183

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